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*vida_soleymani@yahoo.com
(89/06/25 :367 .% 89/04/05 :,! .%)


CD &&! E#F& G H% B ## ID B! !$ ?, $, ! @’A ! >$, =,7 = ” >S H% B ID !$ ?, QR ! % 1(SPD) N&O7 B# P% =N#% D =M ! .K&J= X “! >W $ N&O7 B# P% =3 # 2(MDF) &H U V, . “! 7 = T
U V, ” W, !$ ?, YK !X, &\ &D$ BW > [ R Y Z = . W, K $=
. ^= &\$ &, ?T% ! BW > ^$, =! > ]& . &H

:& $’%
.!$ ?, !X, BW > &H U V, N&O7 B# P%
=! ” >! $ \E#F& h&\ =3 . ” &D [i $= K >S , &D ! =! ” ^= “!! > >RRF ! , =! ” ` Y . ^$, E#F& ! !! ^= ># 1 b ! >& “! =!X,
>` cW =!X, j >% @( Y
.[3 2 1] ! Y$)H “! =!X, & ! W, H =3 D =M ! ()*) -1 ! YK =!X, $, @X_F % ‘( ! Y >` % =&D # “= . ! ‘
67ZA’ , > W \E#F& @X_F
=3 H . “! W #H
(S >! ,a >% ! Y ! ! \E#F&
>! B# P% ‘ %b @S cW Y ! ” .! ” g% de Yf= BW
.mRF% Y ! “!T& ! !X, s% :(1) M H
(S C Si Mn P
(! 0/088 0/008 0/496 0/014
(S S Al Fe )! (S
(! 0/02 0/038 99/2 0/136

!’ = Y)= w &D$ vO( G ! @’A Y . “!! 3 50×40×32 (l × w × t) mm @S F% R! 10 @ !`& H! 950 ! Y&`$ oF ! ! qg &,` F BW
F% Y% 450 ,x N = Q7 “)&! o% ‘ MS % V, @S Q7 = ! . &,` B# P%
W, E% q7 .,` @( = = 0/5 ^ ‘ . !` ND CW (,O = V, & Q7 6 % 7 = ^DU 90º b = >7 B# P% = BW [p% H . !` #% => @ !`& H! 400 ! ” “!! N&O7 . &,` BW %b @S F% h&\ ^7 “! @S q7 &D$ @P% o% &D$ ! z M& MF =
= &\$ .,` ! {##
. W ! 50 Kg S F% # 3

4, /0$ -3 !X, EX B# P% MS B & !
&D {## _% .!` !
. ” “!! > (1) B# ! !X,
95/1 B !X, &D$ ! GbO A= . 7 (! 4/9 ^ > FK= , (!
” |% .!! X B# P% !X, Y Y Y7 =3 >S F% &, ‘% !$ ?, mn Y7 X 3 . &D 4Y7 X 3X (SPD) N&O7 B# P% =N#%
!$ ?, ! ! ! N ! KR&J @( N&O7 B# P% =3 . B % & %X ?% ! ! H% B N&O7 ^ % % =N#% Y . !
! &# 1 ” o& !$ ?, =!X,
# (MDF) &H U V, . ` “!T&
U B N&O7 B# P% =3
. MS F P% !W V, #% b
.[5 4] W, K $= X “! MDF $
[p% =! > $ >$ T&\ =&7 P% ! >% =&7 Y H 6` P% q7 >! ! r ^ r ^ R B#
=! ” !X, s% ! cW (S tb B#
.! ” [i BS H $ B# P% q7 %b @S
BW ! > I_D Y ! . =! ”
. ! =! ” B# H% B [p% @XF% BW B ^ >$ [p% mRF% Y ! qg .,` ! ## ID &D$
!$ ?, &D ! ! BW %b @S [p% .,` ‘A ! ## ID

+*, . -2 “!T& “! !X, j N mRF% Y ! ‘ . ” “!! > (1) M H ! >W s% j uF &D$ “! !X, j N %
! =, b J ” =!B#% =,
.,`

47 &H U V, ” W, YK !X, ! B# P% ‘ BW
CS ! B# P% H ! 5&, = ! > % D =H = “Tb = B)H # P% ” )= Y .[6] ! = ! ! ^$, >W ! = &J! , > \ B# N Eb ! &D$ YU Y&,` .[7]
s%% Y .! ” = =! Y ! %P% ] % VD ^ MS ` b =! B#
. W ! %FK= =! @( ” =! ! ” “D€ c =! Y F % n ] % BW Yb ! .[8] B# P% & !
” ” = ! b (! , #%& ! B(b c= &D ! & ! ” K
?T% &D ! W, BW W, ! .[9] !
. &, P% !X, &D$ @P% BW @S [p% (3) B# !`& H! 400 BW ! ! 2/5 ^ % &, B# P% BW . =! > BW h&\ => @ o& FK= =! R! N > @ &, B#
” = &D$ ! &# 1/3 R% ! ” &, ?T% =! BW > ^$, . 3/8 ! ” o& R! 3 BW > ! n o& R! 30 > @ BW ‘ . &# B# . &# 13/2 , FK= =! ” va R! 1 > @ ” BW &D$ (4)
. =! > & BW Yb ! , =! ” o& @P% (5) B# > h&\ => @ !`& H! 400 ! ! BW > sJb ! ” K ]& . =! ! % O &D ‘ oR, 1/5 1 =^ Bb ! ” ! =&D . ” K &,
. &, ! % b ” \ n\ BW =! > BW > ! ” o& ^$, Y

!X, &D {## _% :(1) B#
.MDF MS B >W !

!X, &D ! , =! ” |% :(2) B#
.MDF MS B >W !

“!! > (2) B# ! &D ! , =! o% &D ! , =! ” o& . ” ># 38/2 ! b ! Clemex $,E _% $W
118 HV ! b Y &\$ . ” !W
. `”
! B o& Y YK =!X, &D$
7 K R &, @( ” @( . ! X B# P% =&D$ Y ! = . E . ^ > FK= =&D$ Y ! ,
” , > \ B# P% sH !

h&\ => sJb , =! ” @P% :(5) B#
.^ h&\ !R 400°C BW ! ! BW

=! % -3 ” ! P% BS 1 b ! & ! =! & ! D! =^% oR, &, ?T% ! ! F | 2 b ! . !W !’% w
>! >c= w >W F &, ?T%
& BW 3 b ! . =! c &D$
.[10] ! =! M’ ƒS
! ” F ! ! ” = (5) B# ! A= 2/5 ^ % &, B# P% ! BW > sJb .K&J= b 2 = h&\ => @ ” BW . &, ?T% R! 3 ! b ! (| ) 2 b j
8 &# 3/8 ! b ! ” o& n
. &#
7 A ! &, M%$ BW o F% :
d1/N- d01/N = k0t . exp (-Q/RT) (1)
>% N ! ” d0 BW ‘ ! ” d >W ! >& c Q BW > t #& [ k0 ! N& h(% K =&7 ! = N Q . BW ! ” K&) F K N . &J= ! E$# ! N = 0/5 M” n . W ! BW > K&) BW > ! ” b Y ! ! &,` G

(C) (h)

(!) (V)
‚ o‚F ‚! ! B#‚ ‚P% ‚ >‚W ! !X, &D$ :(3) B#
B‚W ‚! ! ” ‚ B‚W ‚&, B#‚ ‚P% ‚b ! (h 2/5 ^
.R! 30 (! R! 5 (V R! 1 (C BW > 400°C

.(h -3) B# %X `$ :(4) B#

. &, ?T% B ! % ‘ M N BW > sJb ! ” F X =^ !
b 3 ! F Y . =! > 7 P%
:
)&T “! -1 ! F | N -2

49 &H U V, ” W, YK !X, ! B# P% ‘ BW

.^ h&\ !R ! BW > K&) – ! ” K&) :(6) B#

! BW > sJb >W ! !X, &\$ @P% :(7) B# .^ h&\ !R 400C BW !

! BW Yb ^% > !W F X P% I_D BW & => ! . !! H% B ^= &\ 2/5 ^ &, B# > !W “= ! % % # B! BW > & ^$, . D! =^%
&\$ ! JF P% ” !W O D! =^%
.[12] ” !
d7 – M= A mA =! > =
Q#’ A ! ” !X, &\ (HV = a + bd-1/2) ^$, &\$ =! ” ^= n .!! Y †, d7 – M= A ! >U . >S . BS = b | >S =!
$P $P K&J N = & . =! B#% ! ! = 6)& %

” ” = !R .! =D N7 A N ! . P% 0/5 % 0/1 =)W @( ! =! ! BW ^$, 0/5 oR, N R
( ! Q e# C€ ! Tm >W ! T/Tm) X . K s% ! _D (S R &T ?T% D ID (S ! oR, N = 0/5 M” R | !
.[6] T/Tm X !R | Y=W K! B„ X ” BW > ^$, =^ % ! (5) B# mA F% ! ! $ (1) A . ^$, !
q#S J BW > ! ” M%$ BW o .!! B# ! BW > K&) sJb ! ” K&) K
R …R S oD Y& !’ >!W ! (6) 0/217 0/169 s%% 2/5 1/5 1 ^ N
N!$ ! ” >% Y7 b W ! 0/278
.! =D W ! Y &J=
JR ! !`& H! 400 BW ! W >! K Y Y7 &J !X, N&#% ! Yf= .[11] RA M” b J ! >%
J (1) !’ mn >& c N W >& c R ! & Y !! q#S W . ^= ” “D€ c R ^$, ^$, ” “D€ c R S ^ >$ ^$, H 2/5 ^ &, B# P% = Y
0/278 R o% ! & F
.! p% $ N =
=> @ BW ‘ &\$ @P% (7) B#
1/5 1 =^ % &, B# P% = h&\
% ! ! GbO A= . =! > 2/5 B ^$, . ^= &\ BW > ^$, =
D! =^% &, B# P% b ! &\ H% 😉 -5
D. H. Shin and K. T. Park, “Ultrafine Grained Steels Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing”, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 410- 411, pp. 299-302, 2005.

N. Tsuchida, H. Masuda, Y. Harada, K. Fukaura, Y. Tomo and K. Nagai, “Effect of Ferrite Grain Size on Tensile Deformation Behavior of a Ferrite-Cementite Low Carbon Steel”, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 488, pp. 446-452, 2008.

K. Myszka, P. D. Hodgson and J. Majta, “Study of the Effect of Grain Size on the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Microalloyed Steels”, Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 500, pp. 25-33, 2009.

T. C. Lowe and R. Z. Valiev, “The Use of Severe Plastic Deformation Techniques in Grain Refinement”, JOM, 2004.

R. Z. Valiev, Y. Estrin, Z. Horita and T. G. Langdon, “Producing Bulk Ultrafine Grained Materials by Severe Plastic
Deformation”, ProQuest Science Journals, p. 33-39, 2006.

C. Suryanarayana, “The Structure and Properties of
Nanocrystalline Materials: Issues and Concerns”, JOM, 2002.

&'( “)! ! ” #! 78 !X, Eg .‡[7]
.1378 ! 544 – 515 .I >T(

F. J. Humphreys and M. Hatherly, “Recrystallization and Related Annealing Phenomena”, Pergamon, Chapter 1, pp. 1-10, 1995.

G. Azevedo, R. Barbosa, E. V. Pereloma and D. B. Santos, “Development of an Ultrafine Grained Ferrite in a Low C-Mn and Nb-Ti Microalloyed Steels after Warm Torsion and Intercritical Annealing”, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 402, pp. 98-108, 2005.

T. Sakai and H. Miura, “Annealing of Deformed Materials Developed by Continuous/DisContinuous Dynamic
Recrystallization”, Mateials Science Forum, Vol. 550, pp.
327-332, 2007.

S. V. Dobatkin, G. A. Salishchev, A .A. Kuznetsov and T. N. Kon’kova, “Submicrocrystalline Structure in Copper after Different Severe Plastic Deformation Schemes”, Mateials Science Forum, Vols. 558-559, pp. 189-194, 2007.

D. T. Llewellyn and R. C. Hudd, “Low-Carbon Structural Steels”, Butterworth-Heinmann, Chapter 2 in the Handbook of Steels Metallurgy & Applications, pp.
137-196, 1998.

M. Chen, En Ma and K. Hemker,”Mechanical Behavior of Nanocrystalline Metals”, Chapert 17 in the Handbook of Nanomaterials, pp. 497, 2006.
> = -6
Severe Plastic Deformation
Multi-Directional Forging
Bottom-Up Process
Top-Down Process
Pancake
Pileup

b ># # >! = =! ” ^=
&\ >W |% &\ & ! & H GbO A= .[13] ^$, >W mn Y . ^$, =! ” BW > ^$, o% , =D ^= &\ d7 – M= A (7) B# mn n .! p% $ &\$
& ! ^ = ! !X, &\$ BW j ‘
&, ^= % @( qg “!! > ^=
.
! =! > &\ ]& > A=
.!! !H &\ ! % ^= BW Xn => =&D =! > &\ ! % ^= Y
$ BW Xn => ‘ SPD ” W,
” > @$` t’ ! #W Mb . &J= 7
&J! B! SPD ” W, =&D$ .[10] &J= 7 %b G = X

8(7 -4 ! h&\ => @ ” ! = BW &D# FK= &D$ !`& H! 400 !
! #%& ! % ” 7 Y .! ! , . W M ” \ , =! > ! & ! BW B ^ R U =
&\$ “! %$ (b , =! ” >J# BW
.! =D & $
” &`$ B(b , =! ” BW > ^$, ! ! ” Y%$ n . ^= &\$ 400 ! ! 2/5 ^ ” “!! B# P% BW ” ! ” B(b R! 1 @ !`& H! # 140 &\$ B b &# 1/3 ! b ! ! ” BW 1 ^ ” “!! B# P% . W ! R! 120 @ !`& H! 400 !



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